Minggu, 12 Agustus 2012

Text Report

Teks Report

Penulis sering melihat banyak anak sekolah yang tidak tahu apa itu teks report, karena itu penulis tergerak untuk memposting pengertian dan contoh teks report.
Berikut ini penjelasan teks report disertai contohnya :
1.) Teks report adalah teks yang menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu (objek, makhluk hidup, kejadian alam) secara apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan yang sistematis dan berdasarkan fakta.
Ciri yang membedakan teks report dan teks descriptive adalah cara penulisannya. Teks report hanya menjelaskan topik teks secara umum, sedangkan teks descriptive menceritakan topik teks secara lebih terperinci.
Struktur teks report yaitu:
  • General statement: Pernyataan awal yang menyampaikan pada pembaca mengenai topik teks secara umum
  • Description: Deskripsi secara umum dari topik teks
Contoh teks report:
Tyrannosaurus rex, sometimes just called T-rex, is believed to be the largest and most fearsome predator on Earth’s land ever to have existed. This dinosaur once roam the Earth in the Creataceous period approximately 68 to 65 million years ago.
As a carnivorous dinosaur, this giant predator most likely ambushed their prey, and devoured them with jaws full of white sharp teeth. With it’s fast ability to run at an astonishing speed of 32 mph (50 kmh), a perfect slim and stiff tail that gave it an excellent balance and allowed it to make quick turns, equipped this gigantic predator and made it even more deadly, like a killing machine.
Sumber : http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Bagaimanakah_contoh_teks_report
2.) Teks Report adalah teks yang isinya mendeskripsikan sesuatu (binatang/barang/tempat2 umum, dll) secara umum
Teks Report memiliki Generic Structure:
1. General Classification
2. Description.
Tenses yang digunakan adalah ‘Present Tense’.
Contoh Teks Report
1) A library is a place which collects records of what people have thought and done.(Ini adalah General Classification).
It preserves those records, and it ,makes them available to us, so that we can learn about many things. In the world of library, we can entertain ourselves, teach ourselves, and be inspired by the ideas that we might never have dreamed of otherwise.(Ini adalah ‘Description’)
A library has many sections. Commonly, a library has a reading room, a catalogue section, a newspaper and magazine section, books section, and a librarian desk which deals with book circulation. The books are classified based on the subjects, such as fiction, science, psychology, etc. They are arranged on the bookshelves.(Ini adalah ‘Description’).
2) Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and blue whale, which can exceed 30 cm in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids
Sumber : http://dsujia.wordpress.com/2009/10/16/teks-report/
3.) Kalian pasti pernah mendeskripsikan sesuatu, bisa berupa hewan, tumbuhan, benda, dan hal lain secara umum. Contoh nyata jika ada turis asing yang meminta kalian menjelaskan tentang karakteristik orang Indonesia, kalian pasti akan mendeskripsikan orang Indonesia secara umum bukan mendeskripsikan diri kamu sendiri tentunya. Atau dalam pelajaran Biologi, kalian biasanya mempelajari karakteristik hewan secara umum, baik itu kelasnya (classification) hingga mempelajari sifat-sifat hewan tersebut secara detail (description).
Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita mengenal teks deskripsi. Namun dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris teks deskripsi dibedakan menjadi dua bagian, yaitu descriptive dan report.
Yang harus diingat adalah Report adalah jenis teks yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu secara umum. Beda dengan Descriptive yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu secara spesifik atau tertentu (alias cuma satu). Contoh: Ada dua teks tentang komputer yaitu “Computer” dan “My Own Computer”, kalau dilihat dari judulnya kedua teks tersebut beda jenis teksnya: Computer (Umum; jenis teksnya Report); My own computer (Khusus, kan cuma komputer saya, makanya jenis teksnya Descriptive).
For example:
For many years, many people believed that the cleverest animals after man were the chimpanzees. Now, however, there is proof that dolphins may be even cleverer than these big apes.
Although a dolphin lives in the sea it is not a fish. It is a mammal. It is in many ways, therefore, like a human being.
Dolphins have a simple language. They are able to talk to one another. It may be possible for man to learn how to talk to dolphins. But this will not be easy because dolphins cannot hear the kind of sounds man can make. If man wants to talk to dolphins, therefore, he will have to make a third language which both he and the dolphins can understand.
Dolphins are also very friendly toward man. They often follow ships. There are many stories about dolphins guiding ships through difficult and dangerous water.
Text di atas menjelaskan tentang dolphin secara umum. Di paragraf kedua tercantum jelas bahwa dolphin belongs to mammal. Ini menjelaskan bahwa dophin termasuk ke dalam kelas mamalia. Di paragraf ketiga dan selanjutnya menjelaskan tentang kebiasaan dari dolphin secara umum.
Contoh lain:
A razor is a tool which is found in nearly every bathroom. A man who has thick hair on his face may have to shave twice a day. It is a habit which can be dangerous. For many years, a razor was a handle with a long piece of steel which was sharp and flat at one end. These razors had a long open blade.
But today’s razors are safer and more convenient to use. The thing which makes today’s razor safe is that the blade is small thin sharp piece of steel. The person who invented razor blades was a man called King Gillette. He was a clever man who had many ideas for new inventions. He wanted to make a blade that was safe and which could be used several times. In 1891, he invented a new type of razor blade. It was short and it was held in a special handle. The sharp edge of the blade did not stick out very far. It was a razor which was safe to use. It was more difficult to cut yourself than with the older type of razor.
Gillette’s razor blade became popular. It was an invention which worked well and which everybody need because each blade only lasted 8 to 10 times. Gillette sold many of his new safety blades and soon became a millionaire.
Teks di atas menceritakan tentang benda mati yaitu razor. Di paragraf awal menggambarkan tentang suatu alat berupa razor secara umum. Di paragraf berikutnya menjelaskan tentang bagian dan bentuk dari razor.
Sumber : http://najmimaulana.wordpress.com/2008/09/12/report-text/
4.) Report (Laporan hasil pengamatan)
Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya, ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama.
Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan tentang, misalnya, rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit dsb. dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga disebut rumah sederhana, dsb.
(b) Struktur Teks:
Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.(General Clasification)
  • Deskripsi lanjutan dari General Classification (Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors).
The heart is the most important part of the body. It is the center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand. ( General Classification)
The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a person’s life. (Description)
The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chambers or small “rooms”. The top chamber are called the right and left auriclesand the botttom chambers are the right and left ventricles. (Description)
When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish color because it countains carbon dioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbon dioxide and returns to the heart, and the process begins again. (Description)
Plants are living beings. They need food, water and air for survival. (General Classification)
Plants derive their food from the earth and the air. If you look at their roots, you will find that ends of these roots are like fine fibers. We call them root-hairs. They absorb water and minerals, then transport them upwards to the leaves through the trunk and the branches. It is the leaves which prepare the food.  (Description)
The green material, chlorophyll, prepares the food like a machine. It converts the carbon dioxide taken from the air and water from the ground into sugar with the help of sunlight. This chemical reaction is called photosynthes. In fact, the chlorophyll takes energy from the sunlight and uses it to synthesize the hydrogen from water and carbon from carbon dioxide for making sugar. This reaction also gives out oxygen and water which are excreted by the leaves. (Description)
Australia is a large continent. It has six states and two territories.
The capital city of Australia is Canberra. It is in the Australian Capital Territory.
The The population of Australia is about 20 million. The first inhabitants to live in Australia were Aboriginal people. After that people came from all over the world. The main language is English, however many other languages are spoken.
There are many plants and animals that are only found in Australia, e.g. kangaroos, platypuses, gum trees and Waratahs.
The main products and industries are wool, minerals, oil, coal, cereals and meat.
Some famous landmarks are the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and Uluru (Ayers Rock).
Sumber : http://www.darnoji.0fees.net/?pilih=news&mod=yes&aksi=lihat&id=16
5.) Contoh teks report
Australia is home to 25 of the world’s 30 monitor lizard species. In Australia, monitor lizards are called goannas.
Goannas have flattish bodies, long tails and strong jaws. They are the only lizards with forked tongues, like a snake. Their necks are long and may have loose folds of skin beneath them. Their legs are long and strong, with sharp claws on their feet. Many goannas have stripes, spots and other markings that help to camouflage them. The largest species can grow to more than two metres in length.
All goannas are daytime hunters. They run, climb and swim well. Goannas hunt small mammals, birds and other reptiles. They also eat dead animals. Smaller goannas eat insects, spiders and worms.
Male goannas fight with each other in the breeding season. Females lay between two and twelve eggs.
Sumber : http://www.madrasah-muallimaat.sch.id/diahfakhmawati/report%20text%20structure.htm
6.) Contoh teks report
Mangrove Trees
A mangrove is a tropical marine tree. Mangroves have special aerial roots and salt-filtering tap roots which enable them to thrive in brackish water. Brackish water is salty but not as salty as sea water. Mangrove trees are commonly planted and found in coastal areas. Mangroves can serve as walls of protection for natural disaster in coastal area like tsunami. According to BBC News, healthy mangrove forests had helped save lives in the Asia disaster tsunami and people tended to respect these natural barriers even more, especially after the tsunami.
There are several species of mangrove tree found all over the world. Some prefer more salinity, while others like to be very-close to a large fresh water source such as river. Some prefer areas that are sheltered from waves. Some species have their roots covered with sea water every day during high tide. Other species grow on dry land but are still part of the ecosystem.The Times of India reported that rare species of mangrove had been found and was also known as the looking-glass tree, probably because the leaves are silver-coated.
Mangroves need to keep their trunk and leave above the surface of the water. Yet they also need to be firmly attached to the ground so they are not moved by waves.
Any part of root that appears above the water flows oxygen to the plant under water surface. as the soil begin to build up, these roots procedure additional roots that become embedded in the soil.
Sumber : http://understandingtext.blogspot.com/2010/01/example-of-report-text-about-mangrove.html
7.) Contoh teks report
Kinds of Earthquake
Earthquake often happens around us. It brings great damages. Earthquake is hard to be predicted and that makes lot victims.
Actually there are three kinds of earthquake. This kinds of earthquake are commonly base on the factor and geological area where the earthquakes happen. These three kinds of earthquake are tectonic, volcanic and explosion.
Tectonic earthquakes is most common one. This kind of earthquake happens while earth’s crust rocks break because of the geological strength created by moving of the earth’s plates.
Volcanic earthquakes happen exactly with volcanic activity. Volcanic earthquakes are when the volcano produces acidic lava, which drys quickly, when it drys quickly it blocks the top of the volcano. This make no more magma can escape. Pressure starts to build up and eventually the acidic lava can no longer stand the pressure. So the volcano is free to explode, the pressure is released so fast that an earthquake is caused. A volcanic earthquake is usually kept within 10-20 miles of the volcano.
Explosion earthquakes are the result of the collapse earthquakes that are small earthquakes occurring in underground mines and caverns.
Sumber : http://understandingtext.blogspot.com/2009/11/example-of-report-text-in-earthquake.html
8.) Contoh teks report
An elephant is the largest and strongest of all animals. It is a strange looking animal which it has thick legs, huge sides and backs, large hanging ears, a small tail, little eyes, long white tusks and above all, elephant has a long nose, the trunk. An elephant is commonly seen in a zoo, it has hard found in it natural habitat.
The trunk is the elephant’s peculiar feature. This trunk has various usages. The elephant draws up water by its trunk and can squirt the water all over its body like a shower bath. The elephant’s trunk also lift leaves and put them into its mouth. In fact, the trunk serves the elephant as long arm and hand. An elephant looks very clumsy and heavy and yet an elephant can move very quickly.
The elephant is very intelligent animal. Its intelligence combined with its great strength makes an elephant a very useful servant to man. Elephant can be trained to serve in various ways such as carry heavy loads, hunt for tigers and even fight. An elephant is really a smart animal.
Sumber : http://understandingtext.blogspot.com/2009/12/elephants-as-example-of-report-text.html
9.) Contoh teks report
Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions have caused some of the worst disasters in the world. They can wipe out entire cities and kill thousands of people.
The name of volcano comes from Roman term. It derives from VULCAN which is the name of Roman fire god. Romans believed that Vulcan lived on a volcanic Italian coast. Romans called the island VULCANO.
According to scientists, volcanic eruptions are divided in to four basic groups. They are commonly known as Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian and Peleean. The term of Hawaiian eruptions are named after the volcanoes in Hawaii. These volcanic eruptions are the least violent type. They produce highly fluid lava which flows quietly. This gradually builds up a shield volcano.
Strombolian eruptions are named after Stromboli. These result from the constant release of gas from the magma. As the gas escapes, it produces tephra that piles up, turning into a cinder cone. Strombolian eruptions happen when sticky magma plugs the central vent. This makes the magmatic gas build up pressure until it blasts. The magma is turned into volcanic dust and bombs.
Vulcanian eruption which comes from the ancient Roman belief, are more violent than the strombolian eruption. Vulcanian eruption happens and brings magma which is more viscous. Vulcanian explosions are usually larger and noisier than the Strombolian eruptions.
Paleean eruptions are famous as the most violent kind of volcanic eruptions. The name of paleean comes from the eruption of Mount Pelee, Martinique in 1902. It killed almost 38 thousands people. A Peleean eruption occurs when the magmatic gas build up tremendous pressure. This causes violent explosions with glowing clouds of hot ash and dust.
10.) Contoh teks report
What is a tornado?
Tornadoes are known as one of the most damaging disasters. What is the description of tornadoes? A tornado is a very powerful column of winds which spirals around a center of low atmospheric pressure. A tornado will look like a large black funnel which hangs down from a storm cloud.
The name “tornado” derives from the Latin “tonare”. It means “to thunder.” While the Spanish developed the word into “tornear” which means “to turn or twist”. This is why a tornado is sometimes called twister or cyclone.
The winds inside a twister can spin around at speeds up to 500 miles an hour, but it usually travels at roughly 300 miles an hour. This speed twisting makes a tornado the most dangerous storm.
The average tornado has a diameter of about 200 to 300 yards. The smaller tornadoes are known as satellite tornadoes. These small offspring, about 50 yards across, can be very fierce and do lots of damage.
The forming of a tornado can be very quick. Sometimes it can form in a minute or less. A tornado can travel across the ground at high speeds, then it can suddenly vanish. Most tornadoes last less than twenty minutes and travel less than 15 miles. However, the super storms sometimes travel over 100 miles before they are exhausted.
11.) Contoh teks report
Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia.
Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick, and woolly layer of fur. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Platypus’ eyes and head are small. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light.
Platypus lives in streams, rivers, and lakes. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. In the other hand, male platypus does not need any burrow to stay.
12.) Contoh teks report
Human Body
Human body is actually a living machine and is like all other machines. This living machine needs fuel to supply it with energy. The fuel is provided by the food which we eat. However do we know how much we need to stay healthy?
The energy value of food is usually measured in calories. A calorie is the amount of heat which is required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree C. The number of calories which people need per day varies. It depends on the activity which the people are involved in. For example; people will need more calories for standing than for sitting, people need more for running than for walking, etc.
The energy which is provided by food is in the form of three kinds of chemical substances. They are carbohydrate, protein and fat. Carbohydrate provides 8.8 calories per gram (cal/gm) of energy, protein 4.0 cal/gm and fat 8.0 cal/gm. Each food contains different proportion of these substances.These three chemical substances are all important for body staying healthy.
13.) Contoh teks report
Birds are interesting flying animals. They are vertebrates and warm blooded animals. They belong to aves class and they can be found all over the world.
Birds breath with their air pocket. Beside as respiration organ, air pocket also can enlarge or reduce their weight when flying or swimming.
There are many kinds of birds. Earth bird has special characteristic. They have different morphology acording to their food and their habitat. Some of them eat seeds, pollen, fish or meat. There are some species that live in land and the others live in water. Land birds live on their nest.
Female birds have specific tasks. they lay eggs and feed their baby, Beside that they look for foods for their baby.
14.) Contoh teks report
Dances are parts of celebrations, and mark important times of life such as births, weddings and funerals. They are parts of festivities at times of planting and harvesting of rice, and other important events.
There are many different types and styles of dances. They are Court, Martial, Mask dances. The dances of the different island vary. Men and women seldom perform together, except in courtship dances. generally dancers will be either men or women. Indonesian dances are slow, with very controlled movements. The dancers’s arm and hand movement are very important.
The court dances are very formal in style. Dancers keep their faces without any expressions, and perform precise gestures. Some dances reflect the pomp and formality of the court. Some dances tell stories from the Ramayana, the Hindu holy book.
Martial dances are generally performed only by men. They were originally war dances and in come the men demonstrade their skill in using the weapons of battle, such as spears.
Some dances involve the use of elaborate masks. It is believed thet when a dancer wears a mask, he takes on the character of the mask as though the spirit of the mask takes over. Each island has different mask dances, and different styles of masks.
Semoga bisa membantu.

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